And the Irish Crime Classification System’s “condensed” formulation plays loosely with pure hierarchical layering but, doing so in the interest of distilling information of peak public interest, is an elegant solution to conveying a large quantity of information in approachable form. â¢ 2012: CES approved the International Crime Classification Framework (ICCF) â¢ 2013: UN Statistical Commission and UN Crime and Criminal Justice Commission endorsed the plan to develop a full crime classification for statistical purposes â¢ 2012-2014: three Expert Group Meetings and 2 â¦ Our classification sets forth 71 offenses at the second level of the hierarchy (denoted X.X in the listings), relative to 62 such second-level categories in the ICCS. In subcategories for threat, we seek to disentangle the type of gun brandishing/display-but-no-firing occurrences that would currently be counted as aggravated assault from those where a shot is fired (but does not cause injury). That said, we recognize that this particular moment in time presents a unique opportunity, coming as it does in the wake of public statements by the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation noting frustration with the state of current crime statistics, indicating intent to sunset the UCR Program’s Summary Reporting System in favor of a full-fledged NIBRS, and elevating improvement of crime statistics (and creation of a parallel database to record law enforcement use-of-force incidents). D. Advantages of the NCVS E. Disadvantages of the NCVS VI. Other violations of public revenue and regulatory provisions, 8.5.1. While it can certainly be argued that this hybrid structure adds unnecessary complexity, we think that its benefits in providing flexibility and range outweigh such added complexity. From the inclusions under this category, it is evident that the ICCS intends the subcategory to be substantially broader, including the specific offenses of resisting arrest and violating procedures (as an inmate) internal to correctional facilities. It is certainly important to know the weaponry (or not) involved in every homicide, every assault, and every serious threat—hence its prominence as an attribute/tag in our listing—but firearm involvement is of such high public import and interest that we judge shootings (or at least the necessary elements to easily calculate such a total) to merit a role, built in to our suggested classification’s categories rather than relying solely on reference to the attribute listing. Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. Regional Forum on Evidence-based Policy Making in Central America and the Dominican Republic, Eurostat Statistics on Crime and Criminal Justice Working Group. 1In this work, Hancock (2013) summarizes and extends earlier comments on the task of classification by Hoffman and Chamie (1999). The Trinidad and Tobago Table of Equivalencies of the International Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes (ICCS) was produced through the coordination of the Trinidad and Tobago Juvenile Court Project (JCP) which is implementing a new Children Court system in Trinidad and Tobago. Download ICCS version 1.0 in: Theft from business or other nonpublic organization, 5.3.1. The drafters of the original UCR definitions grappled with the problem that generic definitions of assault can be overly broad (International Association of Chiefs of Police, 1929:197–199): Assault is generally defined as any unlawful physical force, partly or fully put in motion, creating in the victim a reasonable apprehension of immediate physical injury. Sorting out the barriers, real and imagined, to NIBRS implementation over recent decades will be a critical part of our final report, as will determining what lessons may be learned from (among others) the United Kingdom’s and Ireland’s experience with major process or classification change being undermined by flaws in data collection at the source. You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. reporting standards, and the code lists used in information systems throughout the process. We retitle our category 6 to refer only to “controlled substances” and, short of specifying specific weights or measures (which would certainly vary by drug), differentiate between “street-level” quantities and “wholesale” quantities under 6.3’s unlawful trafficking or distribution of controlled drugs heading. Fraud against businesses or establishments, including nonprofit organizations, 188.8.131.52 Counterfeiting means of cash payment; 184.108.40.206 Counterfeiting means of noncash payment, 7.2.3. Ready to take your reading offline? It misses, In the text of the definition for our 1.1 murder and intentional homicide, we add the phrasing “committed with reckless indifference to life” as one standard for defining intentional homicide. More important and substantive is the classification of crimes according to the severity of punishment. We think that some basic truths need to be stated—directly and bluntly—as the debate on how to move forward with (reformed) crime statistics data collection begins, and that these conclusions do not prejudge implementation- and methodology-specific recommendations we will offer in our final report. To be clear, though, we have made some revisions to both the base classification and to the attribute list; we will return to these differences in Section 5.2.3 after stating our suggested classification (in brief form) and attribute list. Moreover, our charge compels us to consider topics that are not currently in the task set of any data collection maintained by the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), or perhaps any agency. We subdivide 38 of these second-level crimes into 131 third-level entries (denoted X.X.X); hence, fully expanding our classification to the third level (treating unsplit second-level offenses comparably to defined X.X.X categories) would yield a list of 164 third-level crime categories. For at least baseline concordance with the actions for which law enforcement officers can make arrests and that the justice system can pursue charges, it would be useful for the main thrust of the classification to resemble a list of known, identifiable offenses. In the ICCS, category 4—using our revised title, acts of violence or threatened violence against a person that involve property—is effectively synonymous with robbery. ); asphyxiation or strangulation; drowning or submersion; pushing into harm’s way (e.g., from high place), – Organized: Gang-related; organized crime-related; terrorism-related; unknown organized involvement, – Unorganized (e.g., protest/demonstration), – Professional affiliation (including justice system/law enforcement). Often the criminal intent element affects a crimeâs grading. A full-participation NIBRS that holds to that system’s current design and content would have great difficulty satisfying all or most crime statistics user needs. As does the FFRC, we add a subcategory for fraud against businesses or establishments (including nonprofit organizations); the ICCS recognizes, The ICCS builds from other United Nations documents to define harassment as, at minimum, “improper behaviour directed at and which is offensive to a person by another person who reasonably knew the behaviour was offensive. We do leave possession of “wholesale” levels of controlled substances as a specific offense under category 6.3.2 because U.S. law treats possession of controlled substances as prima facie evidence of distribution (or intent to distribute) if the quantity in question is above that legally deemed suitable for personal consumption. Yet the second, contradictory impulse is also very strong, and derives from the specific topic matter at hand: In working with “crime,” a break from the meaning (if not the specific language) of criminal law can only be taken so far. Acts that result in the depletion or degradation of natural resources, 10.4.2. Trade or possession of protected or prohibited species of fauna and flora, 10.4. Acts involving weapons, explosives, and other destructive materials, 9.1.1. Other criminal acts not elsewhere classified. To begin, we repeat a point that we made earlier in this chapter describing our objectives for constructing the classification: By stating the classification now and in this form, we do not suggest or expect that it be immediately swapped in as the underlying offense code list for NIBRS, the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), or any current data collection. In March 2015, the United Nations Statistical Commission endorsed the International Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes (ICCS) and a plan for its implementation. It is not yet ready for direct implementation, and is a preparatory and partial step in that direction, but much work remains in our final report to work with this classification, suggest which categories must (and which should not) be implemented immediately, and which would be good to know about (but perhaps not immediately available or essential). The ICCS’s offense category “participation in an organized criminal group” seemed overly broad, and it was difficult to identify specific crimes related to organized crime—other than racketeering offenses—in its stead. There are no easy answers—hence, again, the importance of an ongoing feedback and review process to refine the classification and related measures. Finally, it might not be a principle of construction, but it is nonetheless important to state clearly one thing that the proposed classification is not. The pure attribute-based classification prototyped by the SEARCH Group in 1975 remains a striking, ahead-of-its-time work, and gives hope that very flexible classifications can be given workable, operational forms in today’s computing environment. Crimes are generally graded into four categories: felonies, misdemeanors, felony-misdemeanors, and infractions. To ensure this flexibility, we find much to admire in attribute-based classification schemes, akin to that described in Section 4.1.2—plans that focus on the behavior/action of a criminal offense while simultaneously gathering critical contextual information that could support reanalysis (and eventual reclassification using revised standards, if need be). Chinese, But volume of incidents alone. While 56% of countries that responded had at least started an assessment of their current data production to explore the status of national crime statistics, only 44% had already started to identify all categories in the ICCS that are neither criminal offences nor administrative infractions in their country. ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. The 30-plus-years (and counting) history of NIBRS falling short of participation expectations (and, with them, the system’s analytic potential) is testament to that difficulty, as is the failure to move the pure attribute-based classification of the mid-1970s (SEARCH) from prototype to limited production. Other deprivation of liberty or acts against liberty, 220.127.116.11 Forced labor for domestic services; 18.104.22.168 Forced labor for industry services; 22.214.171.124 Other forced labor. 74/247, International cooperation and information exchange, The Monitoring Illicit Arms Flows Initiative, Trafficking in persons and smuggling of migrants, Manual for criminal justice practitioners and its annexes, Global Programme against Money Laundering, Conference of the Parties to Organized Crime Convention, Mandate of the Terrorism Prevention Branch, Organization of the Terrorism Prevention Branch, Strengthening international cooperation in criminal matters, Global Programme for Combating Wildlife and Forest Crime, International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime, Blue Heart Campaign against human trafficking, 20th anniversary of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC20), Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, Countering transnational organized crime and illicit trafficking/drug trafficking, Prevention, treatment and reintegration, and alternative development. It is also to the ICCS’s credit that it has won the approval of the various United Nations commissions to which it has been submitted—not because full compliance with international standards is a paramount goal, but because the capacity for international comparison of different crime types is ultimately a good thing, in our assessment. This includes objectionable or unacceptable conduct that demeans, belittles or causes personal humiliation or embarrassment to an individual.” Again, we find that this definition is incomplete, rather than strictly inaccurate, because the behavior in question is not specified as a pattern of repeated conduct. UN-CTS is UNODC's primary instrument for collecting crime data. Serious threat through shooting or discharge of a firearm, 2.2.2. In one sentence, the 1929 UCR manual sets the precedent for the still-current practice of firearm involvement being a trigger for an assault being deemed aggravated—these aggravated assaults are “most likely to be reported to the police” precisely “because of the gravity of their nature and because in each case the overt act is accompanied by the use of a weapon or means likely to produce death or great bodily harm.” However, a few sentences later, “offenses such as shooting, or throwing at or into railroad trains[,] have been omitted from the aggravated assault group”—not because they lack the potential to produce death or great bodily harm, but because “they are usually offenses of malicious mischief by children.”. As a final example of a major change we suggest relative to the ICCS, we modify the definitions of harassment and (particularly) stalking based on what we heard from advocacy groups and practitioners in our workshop-style meetings. It also comes as the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) is poised, by equipping a sample of law enforcement agencies to begin reporting data in NIBRS format through the National Crime Statistics Exchange (NCS-X) Program), to finally showcase the analytic power of NIBRS because NIBRS so seeded with selected agencies will finally constitute a representative sample of the population. However, we think it appropriate to include “unlawful” in the title of those offenses involving death but that vary by statute and legal authority. This principle is that (4) the suggested classification should be designed in order to enable and promote comparisons between jurisdictions, between periods of time, and across state and national boundaries. Unlawful interception or access of computer data, 5.3.4. It is one of the explicit inclusions as an “other type of fraud” in the ICCS, so we are “promoting” it in our classification, and it has generally been classed as a type of fraud or deception in U.S. applications (e.g., topic supplements to the National Crime Victimization Survey and the surveys of consumer fraud conducted by the Federal Trade Commission). VII. We acknowledge the UNODC’s role and its coordination of expert work groups to develop the ICCS, and properly give them credit for much hard work in structuring a great mass of material. Other acts of slavery and exploitation, 2.5.1. Likewise, reliable information about the mental health status (and history) of offenders, or the drug or alcohol involvement/usage by both offender and victim, would be greatly beneficial for policy development—but so difficult to measure precisely and objectively in a routine crime statistics collection system that we omit them. In brief: Individual officers file paper investigative or incident reports, and are directed to “title” them with the California Penal Code offenses involved. And, it is important to reemphasize that we do not expect that any single data collection (NIBRS, NCVS, or otherwise) can satisfy user needs or come close to filling out all parts of our suggested classification. The classification we outline below is not a new list of codes to replace in full—immediately—the crimes measured by any of the current U.S. crime statistics programs, whether the UCR (including NIBRS), the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), or anything else. UCR Data and the NCVS Compared. So, for instance, in 2.3.1 abduction of a minor, 3.5 sexual exploitation of children, and 8.9 acts contrary to juvenile justice regulations or involving juveniles/minors—among other places in the classification—we decline to suggest a fixed, uniform age cut-off that distinguishes minors/juveniles/children from adults. Acts intended to unduly influence voters at elections, 8.7.2. Expert Meeting on International Cooperation, Ad Hoc Committee established by GA res. © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. Other acts leading to death by suicide, 1.6. Child prostitution, production and provision, 3.5.4. Drawing a correspondence between this suggested classification and current (or as-yet nonexistent) data collections awaits our second report. Unlawful acts involving drug equipment or paraphernalia, 6.5. The ICCS is the tool to understand crime extent and drivers. Rather, as an interim measure, we permit the standards that would apply in a particular reporting jurisdiction. To be fair, the relatively spotty participation in NIBRS has undercut the capacity to demonstrate the full analytic power afforded by the system, because NIBRS estimates to date are not representative of broader regional or national populations. Unlawful employment or housing of an undocumented migrant, 8.5.4. First, as described in Section 1.2, we take the criminal offense as the basic unit for classification purposes. Accordingly, there is a need for an expansive. However, elements of categories 8.1–8.3 are instances where there is ground for greater discrepancy between other nations’ “public order” behavioral or sexual standards and the U.S. standards—and the staunch American value of freedom of expression certainly complicates (if not fully negates) definition of offenses under the ICCS’s acts related to freedom of expression or control of expression (our category 8.3). Acts involving the movement or dumping of waste, 10.3. In 2007â2008, several parties revived a notion that had surfaced as early as 1951 and separately began to raise the idea of extending the set of international standards to include a new classification of crime. In particular, in U.S. usage, both are considered “course of conduct” offenses in which the harassment or stalking “incident” is not a single action at a single point of time, but rather a pattern of behavior over a spell of time (however short). When police departments have been accused of distorting crime statistics—for example, in Milwaukee (Poston, 2012b,a,d,c), Chicago (Bernstein and Isackson, 2014a,b, 2015), and most recently (at this writing) Los Angeles (Poston and Rubin, 2015)—one common cause is the blurred line on counting assaults. In any event, collection of the attribute information along with the offense classification permits more detailed analysis—and future revisions could either fold specific offense-attribute combinations into the classification table or dissolve them, as judged appropriate. The net numbers of second- and third-level categories we define are very similar to corresponding totals in the ICCS, but the totals mask some purposeful rearrangements. We retain the ICCS’s per-offense attribute of cybercrime involvement—a binary yes/no flag based on whether computer systems or data were integral to the modus operandi of the offense, and the offenses listed under category 5.3 in our hierarchy are explicitly computer-centric. Ultimately, we felt it best to borrow a page from, in particular, the Irish crime classification system, which is replete with references to violations of specific pieces of legislation, and so make our category 9.3.1 into violations of the (federal) Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization (RICO) Act. We have already alluded to one divergence from the UNODC’s ICCS model, which we settled on early in the process: We chose to be substantially more sparing in working the classification down to the fourth level of categorization. in offense, if applicable: Type, and quantity, of drug/psychoactive substance involved (for Group 6 controlled drug offenses): – U.S. citizen (includes dual citizens with U.S.). 126.96.36.199 Unlawful interference with a computer system; 188.8.131.52 Unlawful interference with computer data, 5.3.3. Our assault category distinguishes between “severe” and “minor” assault based on the level of injury inflicted, and further distinguishes serious assault by whether it involves a shooting or not. In short, this is a uniquely opportune time to state a few select conclusions that derive directly from this report’s focus on development of a crime classification and from what we learned from outreach to the broader crime statistics constituencies. In this nod to current widespread usage, we also recognize the need for care with the term “reckless,” because it might be inappropriately deemed to be equal with “negligent.”. Operation of a vehicle under the influence of alcohol or other psychoactive substances, 2.8.3. Shoplifting is one such example—a high-volume offense, and hence one specific offense that could dwarf the counts of other specifically included crimes under category 5.2.3 theft from business or other nonpublic organization. Specifically, we have to recognize that some of the topics and definitions in current U.S. crime statistics are explicitly spelled out by federal law—law that can and should be revised over time, too, but that is nonetheless a working constraint. White-collar offenses like corruption, embezzlement, and market manipulation could finally be presented side-by-side with “street crime”; systematic collection of offenses related to the operation of the criminal justice system itself (breach of justice system authority, obstruction of justice) could yield insight into separate analyses of the functioning of the judicial branch; and damaging crimes that have heretofore been studied principally through use of limited survey data (such as harassment, stalking, and identity theft) could finally have another benchmark for comparison. The focus on straightforward-to-define attributes enables that strategy and is meant to improve end data quality, but it does have consequences in excluding some points of information. For example, the only circumstances in which reporting LAPD officers are instructed to “title” their reports as to whether an assaultive incident is “aggravated” or “simple” in nature are domestic violence or child abuse incidents. 4Similar mismatches occur for the (admittedly rarer) Penal Code-defined offense of mayhem, serious assault resulting in permanent disfigurement/mutilation. We identified four basic principles to guide our development of a specific, modern classification of crime in the United States. We built notions of the quantity/value of drugs involved into the statements of offenses, but have omitted a general attribute for value of property involved (e.g., stolen. This first report develops a new classification of crime by weighing various perspectives on how crime should be defined and organized with the needs and demands of the full array of crime data users and stakeholders. Further, as a sign of a clear “break” from the strictures of past categorizations (and a preventative of another 90 years passing before U.S. crime statistics are reassessed in a comprehensive way), we also suggest the need for the flexibility that comes from continual monitoring of the field and from regular, periodic review: Conclusion 5.2: “Crime” continues to evolve and take different shapes. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS International Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes (ICCS) International Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes (ICCS) 173 Number of visitors. Robbery of an establishment or institution, 4.2. The ICCS, as the new standard classification for criminal We concur, and apply the same subcategory breaks to arson. First, the ICCS’s single subcategory for child prostitution blends two very different types of unlawful and unacceptable. The ICCS is not a classification that can or should be applied directly, exactly as is, without any customization based on the user/stakeholder needs described in Chapter 3—but, by the same token, extensive departure from the ICCS structure would undermine the classification’s value for comparative purposes. Now established as a permanent agency, the Census Bureau commissioned the drafting of a manual for preparing crime statistics—intended for use by the police, corrections departments, and courts alike. The second type of gap in the classification—types or classes of crime that should or may be recoverable from a fully realized dataset built around the classification (attributes and all), but that are not explicitly called out in the classification’s listing—is probably best exemplified by cybercrime. sification of Crime for Statistical Purposes (ICCS) and its implementation plan at the 46th meeting of the United Nations Statistical Commission (UNSC) in New York in March 2015. Similarly, we split 13 third-level offenses into 38 specific fourth-level (X.X.X.X) categories, meaning that a fully expanded fourth-level listing from our classification would have 189 listings. Unlawful possession or use of controlled drugs for personal consumption, 6.2. Consistent with the goal, as part of the properties of a proper statistical classification, of making the classification exhaustive of the phenomena of interest, we believe our suggested classification to be comprehensive. 184.108.40.206 Arson of personal/residential property; 220.127.116.11 Arson of business or other nonpublic establishment property; 6.1. There are two basic corollaries to this conclusion that are supported by this report’s classification-based focus and that we feel should be made now in order to contribute in a timely manner to current debates, even though more detailed discussion awaits our second report. developing modern statistical measures of crime in the United States. mature) classification scheme will be important to building effective federal and subnational partnership. Crimes are generally graded into four categories: felonies, misdemeanors, felony-misdemeanors, and infractions. We make numerous changes throughout category 8, acts against public order and authority—none of which are large in scope but that, collectively, are meant to preserve consistency with the ICCS (to facilitate comparison to the greatest extent possible). Other acts causing harm or intending to cause harm to the person, 3.1.3. because of the age of either the victim or the perpetrator—and shift it from the catch-all category 11 to category 8, where it seems a more natural fit (and which avoids truancy/absence from school from falling in the same category with treason and genocide). The records management system, in turn, translates the Crime Class Codes into UCR categories for reporting to the California Department of Justice (and then to the FBI). the course-of-conduct, repeated-acts nature of the offense and, worse, too strongly connotes the notion of stalking almost necessarily involving surreptitious physical surveillance of a victim. Accordingly, much of what follows and which is spelled out in more detail in Appendix D is directly derived from and comports with Version 1.0 of the ICCS as promulgated by the UNODC.
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